Category: C3 axis

The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae and is located at the base of the skull.

Molecular symmetry

Its function is to support the skull, enabling head movements back and forth, and from side to side, as well as protecting the spinal cord. The upper section of the cervical spine consists of the first cervical vertebrae C1 and the second cervical vertebrae C2.

The lower section consists of the third cervical vertebrae C3 through seventh cervical vertebrae C7. These spinal bones attach to the thoracic spine and work together to support the head.

Spinal bone three is directly in line with the lower section of the human jaw and the hyoid bone, which is a horseshoe-shaped bone located inside the neck that holds the tongue in place. Just like the other six spinal bones, spinal bone three is quite flexible, giving it the ability to aid in the bending and rotation of the neck. The fourth cervical vertebrae C4 nerve root extends from the third cervical vertebrae C3.

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Injury to spinal bone three often causes pain, tingling, and sometimes numbness in the arms, neck, and head. If the fourth cervical vertebrae C4 nerve root is also involved, pain is usually felt in the upper arms and shoulders, as well as the lower neck.

The human backbone is a column of 33 total vertebrae, of which 24 are movable and free the remainder are fused. The movable vertebrae are divided…. The thoracic spinal vertebrae consist of 12 total vertebrae and are located between the cervical vertebrae which begin at the base of the skull and…. The vertebral column, or spinal column, is made up of a total of 33 vertebrae, which are subdivided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar….

Its function is to support the skull, enabling head movements…. At the base of the spinal column, near the first lumbar vertebra, is a collection of nerves called the cauda equina. They are called this because they…. Vertebra prominens C7. Read this next. L1 Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. T11 Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. Axis Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network.

C5 Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. Cauda equina Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. C4 Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network.

T9 Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network.Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of molecules according to their symmetry.

Molecular symmetry is a fundamental concept in chemistry, as it can be used to predict or explain many of a molecule's chemical propertiessuch as its dipole moment and its allowed spectroscopic transitions. To do this it is necessary to classify the states of the molecule using the irreducible representations from the character table of the symmetry group of the molecule.

Many university level textbooks on physical chemistryquantum chemistryspectroscopy and inorganic chemistry devote a chapter to symmetry. The framework for the study of molecular symmetry is provided by group theoryand in particular irreducible representation theory.

Another framework on a larger scale is the use of crystal systems to describe crystallographic symmetry in bulk materials. Many techniques for the practical assessment of molecular symmetry exist, including X-ray crystallography and various forms of spectroscopy.

Spectroscopic notation is based on symmetry considerations. The study of symmetry in molecules makes use of group theory. The point group symmetry of a molecule can be described by 5 types of symmetry element. The five symmetry elements have associated with them five types of symmetry operationwhich leave the molecule in a state indistinguishable from the starting state. They are sometimes distinguished from symmetry elements by a caret or circumflex. A symmetry element can have more than one symmetry operation associated with it.

The symmetry operations of a molecule or other object form a group. In mathematics, a group is a set with a binary operation that satisfies the four properties listed below. In a symmetry groupthe group elements are the symmetry operations not the symmetry elementsand the binary combination consists of applying first one symmetry operation and then the other. By convention the order of operations is from right to left.

This means that the group is closed so that combining two elements produces no new elements. Symmetry operations have this property because a sequence of two operations will produce a third state indistinguishable from the second and therefore from the first, so that the net effect on the molecule is still a symmetry operation.

The order of a group is the number of elements in the group. For groups of small orders, the group properties can be easily verified by considering its composition table, a table whose rows and columns correspond to elements of the group and whose entries correspond to their products. The successive application or composition of one or more symmetry operations of a molecule has an effect equivalent to that of some single symmetry operation of the molecule.

This group is called the point group of that molecule, because the set of symmetry operations leave at least one point fixed though for some symmetries an entire axis or an entire plane remains fixed. In other words, a point group is a group that summarizes all symmetry operations that all molecules in that category have.

One can determine the symmetry operations of the point group for a particular molecule by considering the geometrical symmetry of its molecular model. However, when one USES a point group to classify molecular states, the operations in it are not to be interpreted in the same way. They are "symmetry operations" for that vibronic Hamiltonian. The point group is used to classify by symmetry the vibronic eigenstates.

c3 axis

The symmetry classification of the rotational levels, the eigenstates of the full rotation-vibration-electronic Hamiltonian, requires the use of the appropriate permutation-inversion group as introduced by Longuet-Higgins.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information.

Can I enlarge the font of c3js charts, such as in axis labels, data labels or categories? I'm interested in setting the general-case font to a larger one. C3 give some classes for each element when generating.

So, you can change the style of the elements by using those classes with CSS. Example: 1. Line style The lines have c3-line-[id] class, so this class can be used to define the style in css.

c3 axis

I had to search around a bit as well and read the c3. Off the top of my head here is some classes you may want to change the layout of, just make sure to include your own CSS file after c3. You mentioned data labels size as well not only axis labels so the font size of the text that shows the result on the top of a bar chart for instance.

This is called "c3-chart-text" in c3 library. I have used this code for gauge graph and it worked. Learn more. Ask Question. Asked 5 years, 8 months ago. Active 1 month ago. Viewed 19k times. I searched the docs and couldn't find anything that related to "font" in any way. Lars Kotthoff Kludge Kludge 2, 4 4 gold badges 16 16 silver badges 35 35 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. A Web Inspector would be useful to check classes. In your case labels are: c3-legend-item-event tickAnimation controls: Display controls:.

Vote count: 0. No votes so far! Be the first to rate this page. Tell us how we can improve this page in your own language if you prefer?

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Necessary Necessary.About Epson SiteMap. Construction: Vertical articulated six degrees of freedom Max. The C3 series was engineered for precision assembly of small parts. These robots were Epson's first 6-axis models to be equipped with Residual Vibration Control, Epson technology that enables Epson robots to move at high speeds with minimal vibration. These robots proved very effective in increasing the efficiency and productivity of users' floor space. In aroundwe started to see a rise in customer demand for robots that could perform assembly and other complicated tasks.

To meet customer requirements, we needed a 6-axis robot that would be capable of more complex movements. We were able to commercially develop a 6-axis model with the help of some OEM mechanical parts. But this was still not enough to meet customer requirements. The biggest objective of our robot business was to develop and internally manufacture an Epson 6-axis robot.

To do so, we knew we had to take maximum advantage of the strengths of our highly competitive SCARA robots. We began by researching and learning about our customers, the majority of whom are in the electronics industry. We found that they were using 6-axis robots with large working envelopes 6 of mm or mm for jobs that could have been accomplished easier with smaller robots. The fact was that 6-axis robots, which are generally larger and slower than SCARA robots, were hard to use. Customers in the electronics industry needed fast-moving, compact 6-axis robots.

Other robot manufacturers were focusing on six-axis robots that could handle payloads of between 6 kg and 8 kg, but knowing that we could meet customer requirements with models that could handle payloads of 3 kg helped us to make our robots more compact. The design and development teams joined forces in the belief that they could meet customer requirements if they could commercially develop 6-axis products based on Epson's efficient, compact and precision technologies.

Given what we learned from further research, we articulated four product concepts 7 that, if realized, would enable us to deliver products that customers wanted.

C3 Series of Compact 6-Axis Robots

The sales and marketing team found that potential customers responded extremely positively to the proposed concepts, cementing our belief that the robots we had in development would be accepted. We were able to deploy the technology we had developed for SCARA robots in 6-axis products, and a prototype achieved movements of unprecedented speed.

Furthermore, the speeds far exceeded our own target thanks to the smaller, lighter wrist on the arm designed for 6-axis robots figure 4. These features enabled our C3 robots to use space more efficiently than the products of competitors while also providing layout flexibility figure 5. Until the emergence of the C3 series, it was considered difficult to use both 6-axis robots, which were slow, and SCARA robots, which were fast, on the same production line, but the C3 changed all that.

Home About Epson SiteMap. Leadership Team Director Profiles. Corporate History Timeline Milestone Products. Specifications Construction: Vertical articulated six degrees of freedom Max. Speed and precision - Offered excellent production efficiency with a good balance between best-in-class speed and precision 1. Figure 2. Figure 3.Rotational symmetryalso known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.

An object's degree of rotational symmetry is the number of distinct orientations in which it looks exactly the same for each rotation. Formally the rotational symmetry is symmetry with respect to some or all rotations in m -dimensional Euclidean space. Rotations are direct isometriesi.

Symmetry with respect to all rotations about all points implies translational symmetry with respect to all translations, so space is homogeneous, and the symmetry group is the whole E m. For symmetry with respect to rotations about a point we can take that point as origin.

For chiral objects it is the same as the full symmetry group. Laws of physics are SO 3 -invariant if they do not distinguish different directions in space. Because of Noether's theoremthe rotational symmetry of a physical system is equivalent to the angular momentum conservation law. The notation for n -fold symmetry is C n or simply " n ". The actual symmetry group is specified by the point or axis of symmetry, together with the n.

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Although for the latter also the notation C n is used, the geometric and abstract C n should be distinguished: there are other symmetry groups of the same abstract group type which are geometrically different, see cyclic symmetry groups in 3D.

Examples without additional reflection symmetry :. C n is the rotation group of a regular n -sided polygon in 2D and of a regular n -sided pyramid in 3D.

NH3 molecule symmetry

If there is e. A typical 3D object with rotational symmetry possibly also with perpendicular axes but no mirror symmetry is a propeller. For discrete symmetry with multiple symmetry axes through the same point, there are the following possibilities:. In the case of the Platonic solidsthe 2-fold axes are through the midpoints of opposite edges, and the number of them is half the number of edges.

The other axes are through opposite vertices and through centers of opposite faces, except in the case of the tetrahedron, where the 3-fold axes are each through one vertex and the center of one face. Rotational symmetry with respect to any angle is, in two dimensions, circular symmetry. The fundamental domain is a half-line.A cyclohexane conformation is any of several three-dimensional shapes adopted by a cyclohexane molecule.

Because many compounds feature structurally similar six-membered rings, the structure and dynamics of cyclohexane are important prototypes of a wide range of compounds. Therefore, the cyclohexane ring tends to assume certain non-planar warped conformations, which have all angles closer to The most important shapes are chairhalf-chairboatand twist-boat.

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All relative conformational energies are shown below. The chair conformation is the most stable conformer. The symmetry is D 3d. All carbon centers are equivalent. Six hydrogen centers are poised in axial positions, roughly parallel with the C 3 axis. Six hydrogen atoms are poised nearly perpendicular to the C 3 symmetry axis. These H atoms are respectively referred to as axial and equatorial. Each carbon bears one "up" and one "down" hydrogen. The C-H bonds in successive carbons are thus staggered so that there is little torsional strain.

The chair geometry is often preserved when the hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogens or other simple groups. The boat conformations have higher energy than the chair conformations. The interaction between the two flagpole hydrogens, in particular, generates steric strain. Torsional strain also exists between the C2—C3 and C5—C6 bonds, which are eclipsed.

c3 axis

Because of this strain, the boat configuration is unstable i. The molecular symmetry is C 2v. The boat conformations spontaneously distorts to twist-boat conformations. Here the symmetry is D 2a purely rotational point group. This conformation can be derived from the boat conformation by applying a slight twist to the molecule so as to remove eclipsing of two pairs of methylene groups.

The concentration of the twist-boat conformation at room temperature is less than 0. The interconversion of chair conformers is called ring flipping or chair-flipping. Carbon-hydrogen bonds that are axial in one configuration become equatorial in the other, and vice versa. At room temperature the two chair conformations rapidly equilibrate. The proton NMR spectrum of cyclohexane is a singlet at room temperature. The detailed mechanism of the chair-to-chair interconversion has been the subject of much study and debate.

The half-chair has D 2 symmetry. The boat conformation Cbelow is a transition state, allowing the interconversion between two different twist-boat conformations. While the boat conformation is not necessary for interconversion between the two chair conformations of cyclohexane, it is often included in the reaction coordinate diagram used to describe this interconversion because its energy is considerably lower than that of the half-chair, so any molecule with enough energy to go from twist-boat to chair also has enough energy to go from twist-boat to boat.

Thus, there are multiple pathways by which a molecule of cyclohexane in the twist-boat conformation can achieve the chair conformation again. In cyclohexane, the two chair conformations have the same energy. The situation is more complex is substituted derivatives. In methylcyclohexane the two chair conformers are not isoenergetic. The methyl group prefers the equatorial orientation.

The preference of a substituent towards the equatorial conformation is measured in terms of its A valuewhich is the Gibbs free energy difference between the two chair conformations.

A positive A value indicates preference towards the equatorial position.

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